Japan Congress Against A- and H-Bombs
1. The Huge Atomic Cloud / The Mushroom Cloud Blowing Up
The atomic cloud (mushroom cloud) produced just after the burst is one of the most intensive characteristics of the A-bomb explosion.
The Hiroshima Meteorological Observatory reported that just after the flash, black smoke rose from the ground up to the sky reaching an altitude of several thousand meters, and covered the whole city. When the fireball disappeared, the angry clouds, like grey smoke, rose and reached an altitude of 8,000 meters in 5 minutes after the explosion.
One of the EnolaGay crew recorded in his flight diary, "9:00a.m.....Clouds were observed. Altitude of 12,000 meters or more." From a distance the cloud formation looked like a mushroom growing out of the ground, with white cloud at the top and yellowish clouds enveloping reddish-black clouds, creating a color that cannot be described as white, black, red or yellow.
In Nagasaki, from an observation point at the air-raid lookout post on Kouyagi Island located about 8 kilometers south of the city, just after the flash it appeared that a huge fireball covered the city, as if it were suppressing the city from the sky. Around the fireball there was a doughnut-shaped ring from the midst of which black smoke and flames rose up to the sky in an instant. The ring of the flames did not initially reach the ground. When the fireball scattered with a flash, the city was covered with darkness. The smoke rising from the midst of the ring, glittering in colors of red, white and yellow, reached an altitude of 8,000 meters in only 3 or 4 seconds.
After reaching an altitude of 8,000 meters, the smoke ascended more slowly and took about 30 seconds to reach an altitude of 12,000 meters. Then, the mass of smoke gradually discolored and scattered in wads of white clouds.
2. Hiroshima Was Burnt To Ashes
The building was the former Hiroshima Prefecture Industrial Promotion Hall, Where special products of Hiroshima were exhibited and various gatherings were held until the A-bomb was dropped. Since it was located just under thehypocenter, blast pressure was vertically exerted on the bulding and only the dome-shaped framework and part of the outer wall remained. It has come to be called "the A-bomb Dome", and it has come to symbolize to the people of the world "No More Hiroshimas". As years passed, however, the ruin has deteriorated further due to winds and rain. A civic movement was started calling for permanent preservation of the A-bomb Dome, and money was contributed from all over Japan, not to mention from Hiroshima. Within a year after the fund-raising campaign was started, the restoration funds had been collected. In August 1967, the reinforcing construction was completed. That is why the present A-bomb Dome gives a different impression from that in the photograph.
The bridge located to the south (the other side) of the Dome is Motoyasu Bridge, and the area to the west (right) of the bridge is the present Peace Park. The hill a little right from the center is Ninoshima (called small Mt.Fuji), which is about 9 kilometers from the spot where the photograph was taken.
3. Victimes Who Escaped Hell On Earth
August 6. 1945. This is one of the six photographs recording the disaster of Hiroshima. A precious photograph taken only three hours or so after the explosion.
Towards the right and beyond is the center of Hiroshima City, and the raging fire is creeping up. Both ends of this bridge, which was the longest one in Hiroshima at that time, were filled with A-bomb victims. Many of them were students of the Hiroshima Prefectural Daiichi Middle School and the Hiroshima Girls' Commercial School who were exposed to and injured by the A-bomb while participating in the demolition of buildings.
Mr. Matsushige, who was a news cameraman then, wrote in the "Hiroshima Tokuho", issued on August 6, 1980, based on his experience, ads follows:
"...in front of the police box of Senda township located at the west end of Miyuki Bridge, a policeman took off the lid of an oil can and started to give first aid treatment to the people with burns, but the number of the injured increased rapidly. I thought this must be photographed and held the camera in position. The scene Isaw through the finder was too cruel. Among the hundreds of injured persons of whom you cannnot tell the difference between male and female, there were children screaming 'It's hot, it's hot!' and infants crying over the body of their mother who appeared to be already dead. I tried to pull myself together by telling myself that I'm a news cameraman, and it is my duty and privilege to take a photograph, even if it is just one, and even if people take me as a devil or a cold-hearted man. I finally managed to press the shutter, but when I looked the finder for the second time, the object was blurred by tears."
Because of the atomic bombing, there were no newspaper reports in hiroshima for August 7th and 8th of 1945. The "The Hiroshima Tokuho" (the phantom newspaper) was published on August 6, 1980, faithfully reflecting the feeling of that time based on the news collected by three reporters and a cameraman who heated toward the hypocenter immediately after the detonation of the A-bomb.
4. 300-Year-Old Camphor Tree Uprooted By The Blast
In the precincts of the Kokutaiji Temple, the big camphor tree, said to be over 300 years old was designated as a natural monument. Its branches and thick leaves provided a place of comfort for the passers-by during summertime. Its roots spread out in all directions for 300 meters, and the street car lines shown on the left in the photograph had to avoid the tree, which formed an archway over the sidewalk.
By a blast pressure of 19 tons per square meter, the tree was uprooted. Also, hundreds of tombstones were knocked in all directions by the complex flow of wind from the blast.
The white building seen on the extreme right is the Hiroshima branch of the Bank of Japan. Because it was built of strong ferro-concrete and stonework, the exterior remained uncollapsed but the interior burned.
5. A Building Brought To Knees By The Blast
This was a clock store located in Hiroshima's central business quarters called the 'Hondori', which is still a bustling street. The upper part was the clock tower which had been telling the time to passers-by, until the explosion.
The first floor shown in the photograph was the second floor. This two-storied building was of a strusture like a match box with no central pillar, so when it received the blast pressure from the side, the first floor was crushed and the building sank into itself. Hence, the second floor became the first floor, and the building leaned toward the side away from of the blast.
There were many buildings of ferro-concrete structure in Hiroshima, mostly in the vicinity of the hypocenter. According to a survey, these durable buildings were only destroyed if they were within 500 meters of the hypocenter. Buildings of earthquake-proof construction were damaged only on the inside. However, many buildings situated beyond 500 meters were essentially destroyed too, as in the case of this clock store situated farther than 500 meters.
6. Disaster Near The Hypocenter
Around the Matsuyama-cho intersection which is close to the hypocenter, victimswere burned to death in their last gesture grasping at the air or trying to escape. Everything that burns was burnt. Roof tiles were crushed into small pieces and scattered all over, air-raid shelters and street cars were burned and ruined. All tell the miserable story without words.
In the Record of the Nagasaki A-bomb War Disaster, the situation in Matsuyama township is described as follows:
"A huge fireball formed in the sky. Directly beneath it is Matsuyama township. Together with the flash came the heat rays and blast, which instantly destroyed everything on earth, and those in the area fell unconscious and were crushed to death. Then they were blown up in the air and hurled back to the ground. The roaring flames burned those caught under the structures who were crying or groaning for help.
When the fire burnt itself out, there appeared a completely changed, vast, colorless world that made you think it was the end of life on earth. In a heap of ashes lay the debris of the disaster and charred trees, presenting a gruesome scene. The whole city became extinct. Citizens who were in Matsuyama township, the hypocenter, were all killed instantly, excepting a child who was in an air-raid shelter."
7. The Urakami Cathedral Destroyed In An Instant
The cathedral collapsed at the burst of the A-bomb and scores cf believers died, sharing the same fate. Then, fire broke out. It is said that the remains of the cathedral continued to further collapse with eerie thuds even after dark. It is also said that there were 1,400 believers in Urakami at the time of the bombing, and 850 were killed by the A-bomb.
In the ruins of the cathedlal, there were many stone statues of the saints in the heaps of broken bricks and stones. The photograph shows part of the outer wall of the south entrance where the statues of the Holy Mother and Saint ,John lie chat,red by the heat rays. Also, the shadow in the lower left of the photograph shows that the largest twin tower in the Orient fully received the blast and was shifted 8 centimeters from the foundation stone.
The building. of this cathedral began in 1985 and it took 30 years to be completed in Urakami, a village then, where the believers have kept their faith since Christianity was introduced to Japan, and even through the years of the Edo period(1603-1867) when Christianity was prohibited. The building employed the Romanesque style, using stones and bricks. This cathedral had a floor space of 1,162 sq. meters and tower 26 meters high. The current LTr.akami Cathedral was built in 1959. Part of the destroyed cathedral is preserved at the hypocenter.
8. A Factory Destroyed By The Blast
The steel framework of this factory was broken and bent in a mess as if it were made from a pliable material. The concrete base supporting the steel frame was shoved by the blast. This is testament to how frightful the blast pressure was. It is estimated that this factory was subjected to a wind velocity of 200 meters per second arid a wind pressure of 10 tons per square meter.
Until the Very moment of the explosion, there was an array of machine tools in the factory, and a number of overhead cranes were busily operating. Most of the workers Were crushed to death.
On August 9, it is recorded that 1,721 persons came to work, among whom 1,019 died and 149 were seriously injured. The rate of casualties was 68%.
A worker Who miraculously kept his life said: "I was talking about work with my colleague, but in a moment he was killed instantly by a crane which crushed half of his body. It was a shocking sight and a horrible way to die --his head was smashed, his belly torn and his bowels ballooned." This photograph shows where many such tragedies took place.
9. Shiroyama Primary School Leveled By The Blast
Shiroyalna Primary School is the primary school nearest to the hypocenter. Built on a hill surrounded by beautiful woods, this was the most modern ferro-concreate school building in Nagasaki. The Shiroyama township was a neathly-planned, quite residential district, but with one flash of the A-bomb, the school, homes and the woods were reduced to rubble.
According to the records of April 1945, this school had 32 classrooms, 1,500 pupils and 37 teachers and staffs. Since an air-raid alert was announced on that day, the pupils were s(nt home. Those who remained were 32 teachers (including a child of one of the teachers), 44 students of the Gakuto Hokokutai, and 75 workers from the Mitsubishi Heiki Seisakusho. A total of 151 persons.
Of the 151 persons, 52 were instantly killed by the heat rays and the enormous wind pressure, and 79 died later. A total of 131 victims accounts for a death rate of 87%. Of the 1,500 pupils who were at a home, it is estimated that about 1,400 were killed.
10. The Heat Rays Burned the Clothing Pattern Onto the Skin / A Woman's Back Burned By The Strong Heat Rays
Though it is unknown at what distance from the hypocenter these two women were, the left photograph was taken at the Army Hospital, Ujina blanch (in the southern part of Hiroshima City), and the right photograph at the Army Quarantines on Ninoshima Island (Hiroshima Bay).
The photograph on the right shows the dark portion of the pattern of the clothing imprinted on the skin by the powerful heat rays. This is also called secondary burns, ins which the skin under the clothing received burns through the clothes scorched by the heat rays.
The photograph on the right shows a woman who must have been exposed to the A-bomb less than 2 kilometers from the hypocenter, judging by the extent of the burns on her entire back. Though the affected part was medically treated, you can see that the degree of the burns differs according to the angle at which the heat rays were received: the burns on the left shoulder are most severe, and the burns on the right shoulder to the waist are relatively light.
Ninoshima Island, where this woman was evacuated to, is situated about 4 kilometers south of Ujina port; it has a circumference of about 14 kilometers. On this island there were several facilities, including the Army Quarantines. These facilities became emergency first-aid stations, and it is estimated that roughly 10,000 victims of the A-bomb were transported to this island by boat. Over 2,000 people breathed their last here.
11. Keloids Of a Person 1.6 Km Away From the Hypocenter
The date of this photograph is unknown, but there are records indicating that it was taken in October 1945, and the patient was 17 years old then. Although the portion covered by the shoulder strap of a bag was left lmburned, traces of burns on the patient's back can be seen since the patient had light clothes on at that time. Heavy keloids started to show on both arms,.Which were exFN=.SEA.
The cause of keloids is not clear yet, but it is consideretd to be caused by a combination of powerful heat rays and radiation. According to an observation record containing 200 entries, a clinical examination showing the sequence of protrusion from skin surface --> tone of color --> contraction of skin described the tramsition as follows:
December 1945 - protrusion started, red, contracted; May 1946 - protrusion becomes most noticeable, red, excessively contracted; July 1946 - partial flattening occurred, reddish purple, contraction continues but also some wrinkles; October 1946 - light keloids flattened, purple color takes on, contraction somewhat eases; January 1947 - heavy keloids shrink and wrinkles increase; purplish blue wrinkles occur.
12. Thermal Rays Leave Human Shadow On Stone Steps / Shadow Of Handrail
The left photograph shows the stone steps of the main entrandce of Sumitomo Bank which is only 250 meters from the hypocenter. It is believed that a person sat down on the steps facing the direction of the hypocenter, possibly waiting for the bank to open. By a flash of the heat rays with temperatures well over a 1,000 degrees or possibly 2,000 degrees centigrade, that person was incineratied on the stone steps.
Up to about 10 years after the explosion, the shadow remained clearly on the stones, but exposure to rain and wind has been gradually blurring it. So, when the bank was newly built, the stone steps were removed and are now preserved at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum.
The right photograph shows the shadow made by the heat rays. This place is about 800 meters from the hypocenter, and the unshielded asphalt surface was scorched, whereas the surface shielded by the handrail appears to be a whitish shadow.
The peculiarity characterizing the heat rays from the A-bomb is that an enormous amount of heat is emitted in a short time -- for 3 seconds after the explosion. The thermal loss by heat conductivity is very little because of the short time, and consequently the surface temperature of a material becomes very high. Within a 1 kilometer radius of the hypocenter, there were many instances where the roof tiles melted and left bubbles.
13. A Boy Who Received Radiation Burns On His Whole Body
This boy had thermal burns on more than one-third of his body, and his chest and the left side of his belly were seriously injured. He managed to leave the hospital after 3 years and 7 months. This person, who miraculously recovered, is now a father of two children, and recollects what happened then; "At that time I was riding a red bibycle on the streets of Sumiyoshi township (about 2 kilometers from the hypocenter). I was 16 years old, and it was my second year as a telegram messenger. The moment of face, I was blinded by the flash and thrown 3 meters away by the blast that came from my rear left, and my bicycle was twisted and bent. It was strange that I was not bleeding and did not feel any pain until I reached an underground shelter 300 meters away. The moment I reached the shelter, I felt severe pain in my back, which ran through my whole body. From then on, for three days and three nights, I kept on groaning in the shelter, and on the fourth day I was finally rescued and sent to a first-aid station."
"In the early stages, the only treatment I received for my burns was the application of a mixture of ash and oil as a substitute for medicine. I do not know how many times I yelled "kill me!" because of the severe pain and desperate feeling."
"Thereafter, as a result of the several operations I underwent, I escaped death and returned to work. Since I have once given up my life, I wish to dedicatemy new life to the struggle against atomic bombs."
He is continuing to devote his efforts to the prohibiton of atomic and hydrogen bombs.
14. The Burned Corpse Of A Boy
This boy, who was burned to death with his hands placed on his chest, leaving an impression of agony, is believed to have been a mobilized student exposed to the A-bomb in Iwakana township, which is about 700 meters from the hypocenter.
In those days, students who were in the 7th or 8th grade or in middle school were mobilized to munitions factories, farms, and national defense crews. They hardly did any learning at school. In the Urakami district of Nagasaki, there were several factories, including the Mitsubishi munitions, to which many students were mobilized. The death toll of mobilized students is unknown.
Regarding the disaster in Iwakawa township where this student was burned to death, the record of the Nagasaki A-bomb War Disaster reads as follows:
The instant the A-bomb exploded, almost all of the houses collapsed. The scattered pieces of wood and other debris covered the ground, and in some places they were heaped into drifts. Those who were outdoors all died, and those who were caught under the collapsed houses were screaming for help, and those who barely escaped frantically ran around. The town got dark, and, when visibility was regained, the collapsed houses started to smolder and then took fire. While there were mixed outcries of calls and for help, the town turned into a sea of flames."
15. Streetcars And Passengers Blown Away
The Urakami district, the northern part of Nagasaki City, was originally a quiet residential area; but, from around the time of the Japan-China War, munition factories were constructed one aftere another. The streetcars transported factory workers and mobilized students to the factory area from the center part of Nagasaki City.
This photograph shows a streetcar that was blown away from the Shimonokawa car-stop while it was heading for the Ohashi terminal, two stops away. The corpses of passengers were blown from the streetcar to a stone wall. Most of them were soldiers of the 2nd Company of Special Guards on the way to the Municipal Commercial School where their defensive position was.
This streetcar was only 230 meters from the hypocenter and was destroyed to the extent that none of its original shape remained after unimaginable pressure of that blast from the upper right. The soldiers and other passengers on the streetcar instantly succumbed to the blast and the heat. The black portions of the corpse, which are actually dark red, are burns from the heat rays.
Currently, this spot is a railway crossing that separates the Peace Park from National Highway 34 where the streetcar line and the National Railway line run parallel, on a lower level, to the National Highway. After the war, the Shimonokawa car-stop was no longer used, but the curbstone of the car-stop still carries the traces of the burn. The place shown in the photograph is now a parking lot, and by the sidewalk along the National Highway above the stone wall, there are two monuments to the memory of the A-bomb vicim. In between is a monument for those victims who had no surviving relatives. Offerings of flowers to these monuments never cease.
16. Subcutaneous Hemorrhage / Atomic Bomb Cataract Caused By Radiation
The left photograph shows a 21-years-old soldier who was in a wooden house situated 1 kilometer from the hypocenter. Since he was indoors, he was saved from burns, but, as he received cuts on his buck, right elvow and right belly, first-aid treatment was given to him. However, when we follow his medical record, we learn more:
August 18 --Hair falling out is noticed; August 19 --Bleeding from gum, and purplish subcutaneous hemorrhage starts to appear as in the photograph; August 30 --Is hospitalized in the Ujina Branch of the Army Hospital, and on the 31st becomes feverish; September 1 --Tonsillitis occurs and with a sore throat he can not eat. Bleeding from gum dose not stop, and subcutaneous hemorrhage multiplies on face and upper half of body: September 2 --Has an indistinct consciousness and starts to talk in delirium. September 3 --Died at 9:30 p.m.
This photograph was taken 2 hours before his death at the request of an American Army surgeon. This soldier's symton record is a typical description of the acute effects of radiation.
The right photograph shows an eyeball of an A-bomb victim who got an atomic bomb cataract. There is opacity near the center of the eyeball. It has been known for some time, through that radiation causes cataracts in animals. But cataracts developed in human beings after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
According to a clinical report of 128 cataract cases in Hiroshima during the four years from 1957, 38.3% had atomic bomb cataracts or suspected atomic bomb cataracts. It is reported that 70% of those were within 1 kilometer from the hypocenter, and 30% were within 2 kilometers.
Some Atomic-bomb cataracts occurred several months after exposure, while most occurred several years later. In the case of this patient, it was diagnosed as an atomic bomb cataract in 1970, 25 years after the bomb. The patient filed an application with the Ministry of Health and Welfare of the Japanese Government in August 1971 so as to be registered as an A-bomb victim. His application was turned down because 'it is not considered necessary that you be medically treated now; The patient filed the second and third application in August and November of 1972. The second one was turned down and he was told to apply anew at the time was commenced. The third one was turned down with a reply saying, 'submit application at the time of operation.' So, the patient had no other choice but to sue the Government and Ministry of Health and Welfare in May 1973. After 3 years in court, the patient's request was finally approved in July 1976.
17. A Girl's Epilation Caused By Acute Radiation Effects
This girl (11 years old) was on the second floor of a wooden house which was situated 2 kilometers from the hypocenter. Since she was indoors, she did not receive any burns, but about a week later, epilation started. She suffered from loss of appetite, bleeding from the gum, and fever. She was recovered a little when this photograph was taken.
Epilation is a characteristic external sympton of exposure to radiation. It can occur as early as 5 or 10 days after exposure, but in most instances the hair loss commenced in the second or third week. Fever begins a few days after the start of epilation and rises to about 40 degrees centigrade. Many people died in this condition.
Even those who were shielded and did not receive any external wound or burn suffered from symptons such as epilation, fever, bleeding and bloody excrement if they were within 1 kilometer of the hypocenter. Many of these victims died within 7 days.
18. HIROSHIMA Has Not Ended
Citizens who were able to escape from hell on earth that day evacuated to the suburban areas of Hiroshima City and took refuge at first-aid stations set up in public buildings. However, this provided only momentary relief. They started to die one after another at the first-aid stations, and cremation could not catch up with the rate of death, so many of them had to be buried togeter.
In July of 1952, seven years after the atomic bombing, 252 remains were dug out from five places in Saka township of Aki country, which is situated 8 or 9 kilometers from the hypocenter. In one location, 156 bodies had been buried together; in another location, the cremated remains of 36 people had been buried together. This photograph shows the remains in Saka township. In the same year, 43 bodies from a vacant lot which used to be the Yamanaka Girl's High School in Senda township of Hiroshima City, and 29 bodies from Kanawajima Island off Ujina, Hiroshima City, were also dug up.
Twenty years after the bombing, in the autumn of 1971, humanbones were accidentally found on the grounds of Ninoshima Junior High School on Ninoshima Island, where thousands of A-bomb victims dies. Believing these bones were remains of A-bomb victims, the Hiroshima municipality dug the area for about one month and recovered the remains of 617 bodies.
The remains of A-bomb victims are still being recovered scores of years after the bombing. Hiroshima, Nagasaki and surrounding areas are still the graveyards of the A-bomb victims.
19. The Dead And The Living
There was nothing burnable left near the hypocenter in Nagasaki around noon August 10th, the day after the bombing. In the report "Air Defense Information And The Extent of Damage Caused by Aerial Attracks" of Nagasaki Prefecture, the scene was descrived this way: "Buildings were almost all burnt down. All the area was reduced to ashes due to the fierce heat, and the casualties are as large in number as ever recorded."
What is this girl looking for, standing vacantly on the ruins swept by flames for a whole day, where embers are still smoldering? She is probably a student judging from her clothes. Is she at a loss, not finding the place where her house used to be? Her eyes, gazing into the distance, look vacant and exhausted.
At her feet lies a scorched corpse, but she does not even pay attention to it.
This person, the corpse who was squashed down and enveloped in flames in an instant, is so terribly scorched that it is impossible to distinguish if it is male or female. This person must have died screaming.
Meanwhile is this girl, who was lucky enough to escape death, still in good health after 50-odd years, or does she carry the agony that comes with exposure to residual radioactivity?
In this photograph, the contrast of life and death is vividly shown. It was a sight seen at many places in Nagasaki then.
20. Abolishment Of Nuclear Weapons! Peace World!
These are photographs of the peace Memorial Ceremony held in Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively on August 6th and 9th.
The memorial Cenotaph in Hiroshima was unveiled on August 6, 1952. Under the Cenotaph, which is in the shape an ancient clay house, is a stone coffin. On its surface are inscribed the words, "Rest in peace, for the mistake shall not be repeated." The registers of the names of those who died by the A-bomb explosion are placed in the stone coffin, and people in Hiroshima (Aki) district call it "kako-cho" (death registers). The names of the dead are added to the registers every year. The total number, as of August 6, 1980, stands at 98,685, less than a half of the estimated 200,000 or more people who died by the A-bomb explosion in Hiroshima. In the case of Nagasaki, too, only half the dead have been identified.
The peace Statue was completed in 1955 by voluntary money raised from all over Japan. It has been made a custom to hold the Peace Memorial Ceremony by hanging a big curtain in front of the Statue. The photograph shows the 35th Ceremony. The design of the flowers placed in front of the Statue, represents pigeons with their wings outstretched toward the sun. They symbolize the figure is appealing for eternal world peace as well as consoling the souls of the dead.
The A-bomb did not simply and injure masses of people and destroy buildings. It destroyed all the living and the community of the living. The experience Hiroshima and Nagasaki underwent is not confined to damage by war. It represents genocide, the obliteration of the society, and devastation of the environment. Inaddition, it is the first experience in the history mankind which augurs the destruction of the earth.
According to the report made by the U.N. General Secretary in the autumn of 1980. There are 40,000 to 50,000 nuclear weapons stocked in the world today, a number equivalent to one million Hiroshima-type A-bombs.
It is certain that the nuclear weapons stocked today are enough to kill the whole population of the earth dozens of times. Thus, nuclear weapons have the power to hold sway over the fate of mankind, between survival and eradication.
We live in the age of nuclear horror whether we like it or not. Therefore in order to make our own lives secure and to ensure the perpetuation of mankind, we must abolish all nuclear weapons from the earth. Japan is in the forefront of this drive for peace.
The movement against nuclear weapons originated with the "Stockholm Appeal" in 1950. With the threat of the use of A-bombs in the Korean War, which broke out in June of that year, the Appel was promoted world-wide and 500 million signatories were collected. When a hydrogen bomb test was conducted at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954, a Japansese tuna fishing vessel, "Fukuryu Maru No.5", was covered with "deadly ashes" and Mr. Aikichi Kuboyama, one of the crew, died due to the radiation.
This triggered the signature-collecting movement against atomic and hydrogen bombs all over Japan, and thirty million signatures were collected in a year. This powerfull message was brought into full play in the First World Conference Against A-and H-Bombs held in August, 1955.
A global movement calling for the extinction of nuclear weapons was spearheaded by an organization called NGO and by the nonaligned neutral coungries, which comprise more than two-thirds of the countries in the world. NGO, an organization formed on the basis of Clause 71 of the U.N.Charter, has vigorously impeached the competition for nuclear development by holding the Hiroshima International Forum Commemorating the 30th Anniversary the Atomic Bombing in Tokyo, Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the summer of 1977; the NGO International Disarmament Conference in February, 1978. NGO has been pointing the way for protecting mankind from nuclear crisis.
Another blobal event to be noted was The U.N. Special Session on Disarmament, held for the first time from May 23 to July 1,1978. This gathering was the result of a joint proposal of the nonaligned nations made to the U.N. General Assembly in the autumn of 1976. Some important resolutions were made in terms of disarmament, including nuclear weapons. A Commitiee of Disarmament (CD) was to be formed with the participation of 35 nuclear and non-nuclear countries. In addition, a week beginning on October 24 every year was designated as "The U.N. Disarmament Week", a period of time during which each country would highlight the cause of disarmament.
At the 33rd U.N. General Assembly helf in the autumn of that year, the following recommendation was made after the Special Session: (1) The use of nuclear weapons violates the U.N. Charter. (2) An international agreement be made to protect non-nuclear countries. (3) Nuclear weapons must not be deployed in non-nuclear countries. (4) Nuclear tests must not be conducted. (5) An investigation must be made so as to terminate the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear test equipment.
The above recommendation have not been fully carried out. Therefore, it is necessary to mobilize public opinion all over the world. Endeavours for peace should be strengthened so that the second U.N. Special Session on Disarmament to be held in 1982 will be much more successful.
The devil's weapon made by man must be removed by the wisdom of man. We must strengthen our belief with one another, and define what we can do now and what we must do now. We must gather each and everyone's efforts into one big force for the abolition of nuclear weapons in order to secure eternal survival, prosperity and peace for all mankind.